__NOTITLE__ Studying 2014/2 PHI110: Philosophy, Morality and Society. Week 2. Undertaken Study Period 2, 2014. Content is quoted and/or summarised from the university website in fair dealing for purpose of research or study. See also: StudyWISE and AIMS.
- 1 Epicurean Ethics
- 2 Links
- 3 Lectures
- 4 Notes
- 5 Questions
- 6 Readings
- 7 Answers
- 8 Activities
- 9 Work
- 10 Glossary
- 10.1 ethics
- 10.2 jurisprudence
- 10.3 hedonism
- 10.4 hedone
- 10.5 gourmand
- 10.6 metaphysics
- 10.7 monad
- 10.8 atomism
- 10.9 materialism
- 10.10 matter
- 10.11 void
- 10.12 pantheon
- 10.13 ideal
- 10.14 fate
- 10.15 tragedy
- 10.16 epicurean
- 10.17 atheist
- 10.18 epistemology
- 10.19 empiricism
- 10.20 audit
- 10.21 thanatophobia
- 10.22 emperia
- 10.23 cosmos
- 10.24 dispel
- 10.25 mortal
- 10.26 fossil
- 10.27 mortal coil
- 10.28 mind
- 10.29 body
- 10.30 consciousness
- 10.31 disintegrate
- 10.32 sense
- 10.33 rational
- 10.34 rarefied
- 10.35 reality
- 10.36 soul
- 10.37 immaterial
- 10.38 dimension
- 10.39 realm
- 10.40 finite
- 10.41 happiness
- 10.42 propitious
- 10.43 felicity
- 10.44 auspicious
- 10.45 altruism
- 10.46 subjective
- 10.47 objective
- 10.48 truth
- 10.49 pleasure
- 10.50 pain
- 10.51 consequence
- 10.52 consequentialism
- 10.53 normative
- 10.54 feeling
- 10.55 eschew
- 10.56 choice
- 10.57 aversion
- 10.58 good
- 10.59 bad
- 10.60 bountiful
- 10.61 gauge
- 10.62 constituent
- 10.63 endorphin
- 10.64 processional
- 10.65 innate
- 10.66 analysis
- 10.67 naturalistic
- 10.68 naturalism
- 10.69 libertine
- 10.70 dissolute
- 10.71 reflection
- 10.72 existential
- 10.73 existentialism
- 10.74 fear
- 10.75 allay
- 10.76 mogul
- 10.77 magnate
- 10.78 legacy
- 10.79 bequeath
- 10.80 Buddhism
- 10.81 Stoicism
- 10.82 ego
- 10.83 dualism
- 10.84 antagonistic
- 10.85 practical
- 10.86 virtue
- 10.87 efficacious
- 10.88 courage
- 10.89 honour
- 10.90 vicissitude
- 10.91 whistle-blower
- 10.92 justice
- 10.93 equity
- 10.94 incur
- 10.95 redemption
- 10.96 clinamen
- 10.97 divine
- 10.98 providence
- 10.99 introspection
- 10.100 sensuous
- 10.101 indulgence
- 10.102 gratification
- 10.103 homeostasis
- 10.104 prudence
- 10.105 utility
- 10.106 ashram
- 10.107 guru
- 10.108 sybaritic
- 10.109 austere
- 10.110 epicure
- 10.111 eudaimonia
- 10.112 parlance
- 10.113 parley
- 10.114 contemporary
- 10.115 ataraxia
- 10.116 succour
- 10.117 asceticism
- 10.118 delineated
- 10.119 fallacious
- 10.120 mete
- 10.121 privation
- 10.122 garner
- 10.123 sophisticated
- 10.124 facetiously
- 10.125 trifler
- 10.126 pewterer
- 10.127 idler
- 10.128 imperturbability
- 10.129 aplomb
- 10.130 tumult
- 10.131 tempestuous
- 10.132 tempest
- 10.133 congenital
- 10.134 inveterate
- 10.135 criterion
- 10.136 sumptuous
- 10.137 penury
- 10.138 lacuna
- 10.139 deterministic
- 10.140 supplicate
- 10.141 inexorable
- 10.142 debauchee
- 10.143 percept
- 10.144 creed
- 10.145 fancy
- 10.146 capricious
- 10.147 amorous
- 10.148 enamoured
- 10.149 exorbitant
- 10.150 dissipated
- 10.151 whim
- 10.152 intemperate
- 10.153 utilitarian
- 10.154 utilitarianism
- 10.155 covenant
- 10.156 elude
- 10.157 dissociate
- 10.158 expedient
- 10.159 expeditious
- 10.160 bewail
- 10.161 foible
- 10.162 odious
- 10.163 furtive
- 10.164 tripartite
- 10.165 fruition
- 10.166 surpass
- 10.167 disparagement
- 10.168 disparage
- 10.169 apéritif
- 10.170 accoutrement
- 10.171 colonnade
- 10.172 stoa
- 10.173 superlative
- 10.174 acme
- 10.175 stipple
- 10.176 precipitate
- 10.177 impetuous
- 10.178 perturb
- 10.179 martyrdom
- 10.180 fret
- 10.181 vex
- 10.182 importunity
- 10.183 importunate
- 10.184 Cyrenaic
- 10.185 native
Epicurus (341-271 BCE) was one of the most influential philosophers of the Hellenistic period. He studied the philosophies of Democritus and Plato, and founded his own philosophical school (“The Garden”), a self-sufficient commune near Athens. Epicurus' ethics (like other systems of ethical thought) are shaped by his views on what the universe is like, and what we humans are. This week, we will examine the Epicurean conception of 'the good life'.
Herewith a list of additional content:
- Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy - Epicurus
- Wikipedia - Epicurus
- Epicurus on Pleasure and the Complete Life
Lecturer for Section 1: Dr Robert Sinnerbrink.
In lecture 3, around the 51 minute mark, the speaker uses a word that sounds like 'processorial'... I looked it up and couldn't find a definition. Perhaps he meant 'processional'?
Readings downloaded from e-Reserve.
- Epicurus. (1998) (c. 300 BCE). "'Letter to Menoeceus' and 'Leading Doctrines'". In Ethics: the Classic Readings, D. E. Cooper (ed.). Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 47-58. (original)
- de Botton, A. (2000). The Consolations of Philosophy. Hamish Hamilton, London, pp.56-70. (original)
- Alain de Botton's Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness - Epicurus
From Epicurus page 10: "The just man is the least disturbed by passion, the unjust man the most highly disturbed."
From de Botton page 6: "Of the desires, some are natural and necessary. Others are natural but unnecessary. And there are desires that are neither natural nor necessary."
|Natural and necessary||Natural but unnecessary||Neither natural nor necessary|
|Thought (about main sources of anxiety: death, illness, poverty, superstition)||Banquets|
|Food, shelter, clothes||Servants|
From de Botton page 7: "Plain dishes offer the same pleasure as a luxurious table, when the pain that comes from want is taken away."
From de Botton page 8: "Nothing satisfies the man who is not satisfied with a little."
- According to Epicurus, the good life is a life of pleasure. What is Epicurus' conception of pleasure? How does it differ from a modern conception?
- Epicurus's conception of pleasure is the satiating of desire and the state of being free from pain. Contemporary conception of pleasure place the satiating of desire on higher ground than being free from pain. Epicurus extracted two forms of pleasure, being 'static' pleasure and 'kinetic' pleasure. Kinetic pleasures are found in the act of indulgence, whereas static pleasures are the residual feeling of being satiated or content.
- In contemporary usage, 'Epicureanism' is associated with a life of indulgence. How would Epicurus criticise such a life?
- Epicurus was interested particularly in satisfying natural and necessary desires and most of what is associated with a life of indulgence are unnatural and/or unnecessary desires which Epicurus didn't care for. It's easier to understand Epircurus's philosophy as 'pain avoidance' rather than 'pleasure seeking' per se.
- Because of the divergence between the Epicurean and modern conceptions of pleasure, the conventional characterisation of Epicurus' view of the good life as 'a life of pleasure' is often misunderstood. Can you think of a simple way to characterise Epicurus' conception of the good life that would be less subject to misinterpretation?
- As alluded to above you could say perhaps that the good life is a life of humble pain avoidance. Framed this way it doesn't sound as decadent/hedonistic.
- Why should death mean nothing to us, according to Epicurus? How is adopting this attitude to death supposed to affect one's enjoyment of life?
- Death means nothing to us because when we're dead we no longer have sensation. Adopting this attitude toward death frees us from fear of death.
- What does Epicurus mean by calling desires natural or unnatural? What does he mean by calling them necessary or unnecessary? Why is this distinction important for Epicurus?
- Natural desires are innate, unnatural desires are not. Necessary desires result in pain if they are not satisfied, unnecessary desires do not. This distinction is important for Epicurus because he wants us to avoid unnatural and unnecessary desires, minimise natural but unnecessary desires and satisfy natural and necessary desires.
- For example:
- A natural and necessary desire: food
- A natural and unnecessary desire: lavish food
- An unnatural and necessary desire: N/A -- there are no unnatural necessary desires because all necessary desires are natural.
- An unnatural and unnecessary desire: fame
- Why do you think Epicurus says it is "impossible to live the pleasant Epicurean life without also living sensibly, nobly and justly and, vice versa, ... impossible to live sensibly, nobly and justly without also living pleasantly" (p.52) ?
- I imagine Epicurus said that because he believed it!
- According to Epicurus, no pleasures are intrinsically bad. Some pleasures, however, are less worthy of pursuit than others. What is wrong with those less worthy pleasures, given that they are not bad in themselves? (For example, why does Epicurus think that the 'debauchee' is not leading the good life?)
- The pleasures of a debauchee are either unnatural or unnecessary and Epicurus is most interested in satisfying natural and necessary desires in a humble fashion.
- Why is it bad for a person to commit acts of injustice? Why can't injustice make you happy?
- Epicurus believes justice is a social contract "not to harm or be harmed". It's bad for a person to commit acts of injustice because they will then have to live in fear of the consequences.
- What would be the advantages and disadvantages of actually attempting to lead Epicurus' 'good life'?
- You'd probably save money! You'd have to be content with satisfying your natural and necessary desires in a humble fashion and stop doing things which are unnatural or unnecessary desires.
- Self Test Quiz - Week 02 Epicurean Ethics
- Discussion Forum for Week 2: Epicurean Ethics
- Week 2 Review: What have you learnt? (original)
Things to do, most important on top:
Things that are done, most recent on top:
- Do the Activities
- Answer the Questions
- Read the Readings
- Read the Questions
- Read the Lecture notes
- Listen to the Lectures
Herewith a list of new and/or interesting words and selected definitions:
- The study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct.
- The standards that govern the conduct of a person, especially a member of a profession.
- The science of human duty; the body of rules of duty drawn from this science; a particular system of principles and rules concerting duty, whether true or false; rules of practice in respect to a single class of human actions.
- The science of right conduct and character; the science which treats of the nature and grounds of moral obligation and of the rules which ought to determine conduct in accordance with this obligation; the doctrine of man's duty in respect to himself and the rights of others.
- The whole of the moral sciences; natural jurisprudence.
- A particular system of principles and rules concerning moral obligations and regard for the rights of others, whether true or false; rules of practice in respect to a single class of human actions and duties: as, social ethics; medical ethics.
- The philosophical study of moral values and rules.
- The philosophy or science of law.
- The philosophy, science, and study of law and decisions based on the interpretation thereof.
- pursuit of or devotion to pleasure, especially to the pleasures of the senses.
- An English transliteration of a Greek word meaning pleasure.
- A person given to excess in the consumption of food and drink; a greedy or ravenous eater.
- The branch of philosophy that examines the nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, substance and attribute, fact and value.
- An indivisible, impenetrable unit of substance viewed as the basic constituent element of physical reality in the metaphysics of Leibniz.
- The ancient theory of Democritus, Epicurus, and Lucretius, according to which simple, minute, indivisible, and indestructible particles are the basic components of the entire universe.
- A theory according to which social institutions, values, and processes arise solely from the acts and interests of individuals, who thus constitute the only true subject of analysis.
- The theory that physical matter is the only reality and that everything, including thought, feeling, mind, and will, can be explained in terms of matter and physical phenomena.
- The theory or attitude that physical well-being and worldly possessions constitute the greatest good and highest value in life.
- Something that occupies space and can be perceived by one or more senses; a physical body, a physical substance, or the universe as a whole.
- Containing no matter; empty.
- All the gods of a people considered as a group.
- A conception of something in its absolute perfection.
- Existing only in the mind; imaginary.
- Lacking practicality or the possibility of realisation.
- The supposed force, principle, or power that predetermines events.
- The inevitable events predestined by this force.
- A drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to cope with unfavourable circumstances.
- Devoted to the pursuit of sensual pleasure, especially to the enjoyment of good food and comfort.
- One who disbelieves or denies the existence of God or gods.
- The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, its presuppositions and foundations, and its extent and validity.
- The view that experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge.
- A pursuit of knowledge purely through experience, especially by means of observation and sometimes by experimentation.
- An examination of records or financial accounts to check their accuracy.
- An examination in general.
- Fear of death.
- A Greek word meaning "experience".
- The universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious whole.
- To rid one's mind of: managed to dispel my doubts.
- Liable or subject to death.
- A remnant or trace of an organism of a past geologic age, such as a skeleton or leaf imprint, embedded and preserved in the earth's crust.
- mortal coil
- The chaos and confusion of life.
- The physical body of man (containing the spirit inside).
- The human consciousness that originates in the brain and is manifested especially in thought, perception, emotion, will, memory, and imagination.
- The collective conscious and unconscious processes in a sentient organism that direct and influence mental and physical behaviour.
- The principle of intelligence; the spirit of consciousness regarded as an aspect of reality.
- The faculty of thinking, reasoning, and applying knowledge: Follow your mind, not your heart.
- The entire material or physical structure of an organism, especially of a human or animal.
- The physical part of a person.
- A sense of one's personal or collective identity, including the attitudes, beliefs, and sensitivities held by or considered characteristic of an individual or group: Love of freedom runs deep in the national consciousness.
- To become reduced to components, fragments, or particles.
- To lose cohesion or unity: pressures that cause families to disintegrate.
- Any of the faculties by which stimuli from outside or inside the body are received and felt, as the faculties of hearing, sight, smell, touch, taste, and equilibrium.
- A perception or feeling produced by a stimulus; sensation: a sense of fatigue and hunger.
- The faculties of sensation as means of providing physical gratification and pleasure.
- An intuitive or acquired perception or ability to estimate: a sense of diplomatic timing.
- A capacity to appreciate or understand: a keen sense of humour.
- A vague feeling or presentiment: a sense of impending doom.
- Recognition or perception either through the senses or through the intellect; consciousness: has no sense of shame.
- Natural understanding or intelligence, especially in practical matters: The boy had sense and knew just what to do when he got lost.
- The normal ability to think or reason soundly. Often used in the plural: Have you taken leave of your senses?
- Something sound or reasonable: There's no sense in waiting three hours.
- A meaning that is conveyed, as in speech or writing; signification: The sense of the novel is the inevitability of human tragedy.
- To become aware of; perceive.
- To grasp; understand.
- Having or exercising the ability to reason.
- Of sound mind; sane.
- Consistent with or based on reason; logical: rational behaviour.
- Capable of reasoning.
- Logically sound; not contradictory or otherwise absurd.
- Healthy or balanced intellectually; exhibiting reasonableness.
- A rational number: a number that can be expressed as the quotient of two integers.
- Belonging to or reserved for a small select group; esoteric.
- Elevated in character or style; lofty.
- Less dense than usual; having low density.
- Of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style.
- The quality or state of being actual or true.
- One, such as a person, an entity, or an event, that is actual.
- The totality of all things possessing actuality, existence, or essence.
- That which exists objectively and in fact.
- An individual observer's own subjective perception of that which is real.
- The animating and vital principle in humans, credited with the faculties of thought, action, and emotion and often conceived as an immaterial entity.
- The spiritual nature of humans, regarded as immortal, separable from the body at death, and susceptible to happiness or misery in a future state.
- The disembodied spirit of a dead human.
- A human.
- The central or integral part; the vital core.
- A person considered as the perfect embodiment of an intangible quality; a personification: I am the very soul of discretion.
- A person's emotional or moral nature.
- The spirit or essence of a person usually thought to consist of one's thoughts and personality. Often believed to live on after the person's death.
- The spirit or essence of anything.
- Of no importance or relevance; inconsequential or irrelevant.
- Having no material body or form.
- Having no matter or substance.
- Not consisting of matter; incorporeal; spiritual; disembodied.
- Of no substantial consequence; without weight or significance; unimportant.
- A measure of spatial extent, especially width, height, or length.
- Extent or magnitude; scope. Often used in the plural: a problem of alarming dimensions.
- Aspect; element.
- Mathematics The least number of independent coordinates required to specify uniquely the points in a space.
- Mathematics The range of such a coordinate.
- Physics A physical property, such as mass, length, time, or a combination thereof, regarded as a fundamental measure or as one of a set of fundamental measures of a physical quantity: Velocity has the dimensions of length divided by time.
- A single aspect of a given thing.
- A construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished.
- Any of the independent ranges of indices in a multidimensional array.
- A community or territory over which a sovereign rules; a kingdom.
- A field, sphere, or province: the realm of science.
- An abstract sphere of influence, real or imagined.
- The domain of a certain abstraction.
- Having bounds; limited: a finite list of choices; our finite fossil fuel reserves.
- Existing, persisting, or enduring for a limited time only; impermanent.
- Mathematics Being neither infinite nor infinitesimal.
- Mathematics Having a positive or negative numerical value; not zero.
- The emotion of being happy; joy.
- Good luck; good fortune; prosperity.
- An agreeable feeling or condition of the soul arising from good fortune or propitious happening of any kind; the possession of those circumstances or that state of being which is attended with enjoyment; the state of being happy; contentment; joyful satisfaction; felicity; blessedness.
- Presenting favourable circumstances; auspicious.
- Kindly; gracious.
- Great happiness; bliss.
- A cause or source of happiness.
- An appropriate and pleasing manner or style: felicity of expression.
- Attended by favourable circumstances; propitious: an auspicious time to ask for a raise in salary.
- Marked by success; prosperous.
- Unselfish concern for the welfare of others; selflessness.
- Zoology Instinctive behavior that is detrimental to the individual but favors the survival or spread of that individual's genes, as by benefiting its relatives.
- Regard for others, both natural and moral; devotion to the interests of others; brotherly kindness; – opposed to egoism or selfishness.
- Proceeding from or taking place in a person's mind rather than the external world: a subjective decision.
- Particular to a given person; personal: subjective experience.
- Moodily introspective.
- Existing only in the mind; illusory.
- Psychology Existing only within the experiencer's mind.
- Pertaining to subjects as opposed to objects (A subject is one who perceives or is aware; an object is the thing perceived or the thing that the subject is aware of.)
- Formed, as in opinions, based upon a person's feelings or intuition, not upon observation or reasoning; coming more from within the observer than from observations of the external environment.
- Resulting from or pertaining to personal mindsets or experience, arising from perceptive mental conditions within the brain and not necessarily from external stimuli.
- Lacking in reality or substance.
- Experienced by a person mentally and not directly verifiable by others.
- Of or having to do with a material object.
- Having actual existence or reality.
- Uninfluenced by emotions or personal prejudices: an objective critic.
- Based on observable phenomena; presented factually: an objective appraisal.
- Something that actually exists.
- Something worked toward or striven for; a goal.
- Conformity to fact or actuality.
- A statement proven to be or accepted as true.
- Sincerity; integrity.
- Fidelity to an original or standard.
- Reality; actuality.
- That which is considered to be the supreme reality and to have the ultimate meaning and value of existence.
- The state or feeling of being pleased or gratified.
- An unpleasant sensation occurring in varying degrees of severity as a consequence of injury, disease, or emotional disorder.
- Suffering or distress.
- Something that logically or naturally follows from an action or condition.
- The relation of a result to its cause.
- A logical conclusion or inference.
- That which follows something on which it depends; that which is produced by a cause.
- Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgement about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
- Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.
- Giving directives or rules; prescriptive. Opposed to descriptive.
- Based on or prescribing a norm or standard.
- The sensation involving perception by touch.
- A physical sensation: a feeling of warmth.
- An affective state of consciousness, such as that resulting from emotions, sentiments, or desires: experienced a feeling of excitement.
- An awareness or impression: He had the feeling that he was being followed.
- An emotional state or disposition; an emotion: expressed deep feeling.
- Opinion based more on emotion than on reason; sentiment.
- To avoid; shun.
- The act of choosing; selection.
- The power, right, or liberty to choose; option.
- One that is chosen.
- A number or variety from which to choose: a wide choice of styles and colours.
- The best or most preferable part.
- An alternative.
- Of very fine quality.
- A fixed, intense dislike; repugnance: formed an aversion to crowds.
- The cause or object of such a feeling.
- The avoidance of a thing, situation, or behavior because it has been associated with an unpleasant or painful stimulus.
- Being positive or desirable in nature; not bad or poor: a good experience; good news from the hospital.
- Having the qualities that are desirable or distinguishing in a particular thing: a good exterior paint; a good joke.
- Serving the desired purpose or end; suitable: Is this a good dress for the party?
- Not spoiled or ruined: The milk is still good.
- In excellent condition; sound: a good tooth.
- Superior to the average; satisfactory: a good student.
- Used formerly to refer to the U.S. Government grade of meat higher than standard and lower than choice.
- Of high quality: good books.
- Discriminating: good taste.
- Worthy of respect; honourable: ruined the family's good name.
- Attractive; handsome: good looks.
- Beneficial to health; salutary: a good night's rest.
- Competent; skilled: a good machinist.
- Complete; thorough: a good workout.
- Reliable; sure: a good investment.
- Valid or true: a good reason.
- Genuine; real: a good dollar bill.
- In effect; operative: a warranty good for two years; a driver's license that is still good.
- Able to continue in a specified activity: I'm good for another round of golf.
- Able to pay or contribute: Is she good for the money that you lent her?
- Able to elicit a specified reaction: He is always good for a laugh.
- Ample; substantial: a good income.
- Bountiful: a good table.
- Full: It is a good mile from here.
- Pleasant; enjoyable: had a good time at the party.
- Propitious; favourable: good weather; a good omen.
- Of moral excellence; upright: a good person.
- Benevolent; kind: a good soul; a good heart.
- Loyal; staunch: a good Republican.
- Well-behaved; obedient: a good child.
- Socially correct; proper: good manners.
- Not achieving an adequate standard; poor: a bad concert.
- Evil; sinful.
- Vulgar or obscene: bad language.
- Disobedient or naughty: bad children.
- Disagreeable, unpleasant, or disturbing: a bad piece of news.
- Unfavourable: bad reviews for the play.
- Not fresh; rotten or spoiled: bad meat.
- Injurious in effect; detrimental: bad habits.
- Not working properly; defective: a bad telephone connection.
- Full of or exhibiting faults or errors: bad grammar.
- Having no validity; void: passed bad checks.
- Being so far behind in repayment as to be considered a loss: bad loans.
- Severe; intense: a bad cold.
- Being in poor health or in pain: I feel bad today.
- Being in poor condition; diseased: bad lungs.
- Sorry; regretful: She feels bad about how she treated you.
- Slang Very good; great.
- Something that is below standard or expectations, as of ethics or decency: weighing the good against the bad.
- Giving freely and generously; liberal.
- Marked by abundance; plentiful.
- A standard or scale of measurement.
- A standard dimension, quantity, or capacity.
- An instrument for measuring or testing.
- To measure precisely.
- To determine the capacity, volume, or contents of.
- To evaluate or judge: gauge a person's ability.
- Serving as part of a whole; component: a constituent element.
- Empowered to elect or designate.
- Authorized to make or amend a constitution: a constituent assembly.
- Any of a group of peptide hormones that bind to opiate receptors and are found mainly in the brain. Endorphins reduce the sensation of pain and affect emotions.
- Any of a group of peptide hormones found in the brain that act as neurotransmitters and have properties similar to morphine.
- A neurochemical occurring naturally in the brain and having analgesic properties.
- Of, relating to, or suitable for a procession.
- A book containing the rituals observed during a religious procession.
- Music A piece played or sung when the clergy enter a church at the beginning of a service.
- Music Music intended to be played or sung during a procession.
- Possessed at birth; inborn.
- Possessed as an essential characteristic; inherent.
- Of or produced by the mind rather than learned through experience: an innate knowledge of right and wrong.
- The separation of an intellectual or material whole into its constituent parts for individual study.
- The study of such constituent parts and their interrelationships in making up a whole.
- A spoken or written presentation of such study: published an analysis of poetic meter.
- Chemistry The separation of a substance into its constituent elements to determine either their nature (qualitative analysis) or their proportions (quantitative analysis).
- Chemistry The stated findings of such a separation or determination.
- Mathematics A branch of mathematics principally involving differential and integral calculus, sequences, and series and concerned with limits and convergence.
- Mathematics The method of proof in which a known truth is sought as a consequence of a series of deductions from that which is the thing to be proved.
- Imitating or producing the effect or appearance of nature.
- Of or in accordance with the doctrines of naturalism.
- Factual or realistic representation, especially:
- The practice of describing precisely the actual circumstances of human life in literature.
- The practice of reproducing subjects as precisely as possible in the visual arts.
- A movement or school advocating such precise representation.
- The principles and methods of such a movement or of its adherents.
- Philosophy The system of thought holding that all phenomena can be explained in terms of natural causes and laws.
- Theology The doctrine that all religious truths are derived from nature and natural causes and not from revelation.
- Conduct or thought prompted by natural desires or instincts.
- One who acts without moral restraint; a dissolute person.
- One who defies established religious precepts; a freethinker.
- Morally unrestrained; dissolute.
- Lacking moral restraint; indulging in sensual pleasures or vices.
- Unrestrained by morality.
- Recklessly abandoned to sensual pleasures.
- The act of reflecting or the state of being reflected.
- Something, such as light, radiant heat, sound, or an image, that is reflected.
- Mental concentration; careful consideration.
- A thought or an opinion resulting from such consideration.
- An indirect expression of censure or discredit: a reflection on his integrity.
- A manifestation or result: Her achievements are a reflection of her courage.
- Of, relating to, or dealing with existence.
- Based on experience; empirical.
- Of or as conceived by existentialism or existentialists: an existential moment of choice.
- A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of one's acts.
- A feeling of agitation and anxiety caused by the presence or imminence of danger.
- A state or condition marked by this feeling: living in fear.
- A feeling of disquiet or apprehension: a fear of looking foolish.
- Extreme reverence or awe, as toward a supreme power.
- A reason for dread or apprehension: Being alone is my greatest fear.
- To be afraid or frightened of.
- To be uneasy or apprehensive about: feared the test results.
- To be in awe of; revere.
- To consider probable; expect: I fear you are wrong. I fear I have bad news for you.
- To be afraid.
- To be uneasy or apprehensive.
- To reduce the intensity of; relieve: allay back pains.
- To calm or pacify; set to rest: allayed the fears of the worried citizens.
- A small hard mound or bump on a ski slope.
- A rich or powerful person; a magnate.
- A powerful or influential person, especially in business or industry: an oil magnate.
- Money or property bequeathed to another by will.
- Something handed down from an ancestor or a predecessor or from the past: a legacy of religious freedom.
- Law To leave or give (personal property) by will.
- To pass (something) on to another; hand down: bequeathed to their children a respect for hard work.
- Buddhism is a nontheistic religion that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha, meaning "the awakened one".
- Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "moral and intellectual perfection", would not suffer such emotions.
- The self, especially as distinct from the world and other selves.
- In psychoanalysis, the division of the psyche that is conscious, most immediately controls thought and behavior, and is most in touch with external reality.
- An exaggerated sense of self-importance; conceit.
- Appropriate pride in oneself; self-esteem.
- The condition of being double; duality.
- Philosophy The view that the world consists of or is explicable as two fundamental entities, such as mind and matter.
- Psychology The view that the mind and body function separately, without interchange.
- Theology The concept that the world is ruled by the antagonistic forces of good and evil.
- Theology The concept that humans have two basic natures, the physical and the spiritual.
- Contending or acting against; as, antagonistic forces.
- Of, relating to, governed by, or acquired through practice or action, rather than theory, speculation, or ideals: gained practical experience of sailing as a deck hand.
- Manifested in or involving practice: practical applications of calculus.
- Actually engaged in a specified occupation or a certain kind of work; practising.
- Capable of or suitable to being used or put into effect; useful: practical knowledge of Japanese.
- Concerned with the production or operation of something useful: Woodworking is a practical art.
- Level-headed, efficient, and unspeculative.
- Being actually so in almost every respect; virtual: a practical disaster.
- Moral excellence and righteousness; goodness.
- An example or kind of moral excellence: the virtue of patience.
- Chastity, especially in a woman.
- A particularly efficacious, good, or beneficial quality; advantage: a plan with the virtue of being practical.
- Effective force or power: believed in the virtue of prayer.
- Producing or capable of producing a desired effect.
- The state or quality of mind or spirit that enables one to face danger, fear, or vicissitudes with self-possession, confidence, and resolution; bravery.
- Recognition of importance or spiritual value; respect.
- Favourable reputation; dignity; sense of self-worth.
- An objectification of praiseworthiness or respect; something that represents praiseworthiness or respect, such as an award given by the state to a citizen.
- A privilege.
- To think of highly, to respect highly, to recognise the importance or spiritual value of.
- A change or variation.
- The quality of being changeable; mutability.
- One of the sudden or unexpected changes or shifts often encountered in one's life, activities, or surroundings. Often used in the plural.
- One who reports a problem or violation to the authorities; especially, an employee or former employee who reports a violation by an employer.
- An informant who exposes wrongdoing within an organization in the hope of stopping it.
- The quality of being just; fairness.
- The principle of moral rightness; equity.
- Conformity to moral rightness in action or attitude; righteousness.
- The upholding of what is just, especially fair treatment and due reward in accordance with honor, standards, or law.
- Law The administration and procedure of law.
- Conformity to truth, fact, or sound reason: The overcharged customer was angry, and with justice.
- Law A judge.
- Law A justice of the peace.
- The state, quality, or ideal of being just, impartial, and fair.
- Something that is just, impartial, and fair.
- Law Justice applied in circumstances covered by law yet influenced by principles of ethics and fairness.
- Law A system of jurisprudence supplementing and serving to modify the rigor of common law.
- Law An equitable right or claim.
- Law Equity of redemption.
- The residual value of a business or property beyond any mortgage thereon and liability therein.
- The market value of securities less any debt incurred.
- Common stock and preferred stock.
- Funds provided to a business by the sale of stock.
- To acquire or come into (something usually undesirable); sustain: incurred substantial losses during the stock market crash.
- To become liable or subject to as a result of one's actions; bring upon oneself: incur the anger of a friend.
- The act of redeeming or the condition of having been redeemed.
- Recovery of something pawned or mortgaged.
- The payment of an obligation, as a government's payment of the value of its bonds.
- Deliverance upon payment of ransom; rescue.
- Christianity Salvation from sin through Jesus's sacrifice.
- Inclination or tendency to turn aside; bias.
- An event without any cause: in reference to the Epicurean theory of the causeless swervings of the atoms.
- Having the nature of or being a deity.
- Of, relating to, emanating from, or being the expression of a deity: sought divine guidance through meditation.
- Being in the service or worship of a deity; sacred.
- Superhuman; godlike.
- Supremely good or beautiful; magnificent: a divine performance of the concerto.
- Extremely pleasant; delightful: had a divine time at the ball.
- Heavenly; perfect.
- To know by inspiration, intuition, or reflection.
- To guess.
- Care or preparation in advance; foresight.
- Prudent management; economy.
- The care, guardianship, and control exercised by a deity; divine direction.
- Contemplation of one's own thoughts, feelings, and sensations; self-examination.
- Of, relating to, or derived from the senses.
- Appealing to or gratifying the senses.
- Readily affected through the senses.
- Highly appreciative of the pleasures of sensation.
- The act or an instance of indulging; gratification: indulgence of every whim.
- The state of being indulgent.
- The act of indulging in something: indulgence in irresponsible behaviour.
- Something indulged in: Sports cars are an expensive indulgence.
- Liberal or lenient treatment; tolerance: treated their grandchildren with fond indulgence.
- Self-indulgence: a life of wealth and indulgence.
- Something granted as a favour or privilege.
- Permission to extend the time of payment or performance.
- Patient attention: I beg your indulgence for just a few minutes.
- Roman Catholic Church The remission of temporal punishment still due for a sin that has been sacramentally absolved.
- The act of gratifying, or pleasing, either the mind, the taste, or the appetite; as, the gratification of the palate, of the appetites, of the senses, of the desires, of the heart.
- That which affords pleasure; satisfaction; enjoyment; fruition: delight.
- The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
- The state, quality, or fact of being prudent.
- Careful management; economy.
- The quality or condition of being useful; usefulness: "I have always doubted the utility of these conferences on disarmament” ( Winston S. Churchill).
- A useful article or device.
- A public utility.
- A commodity or service, such as electricity, water, or public transportation, that is provided by a public utility.
- A usually secluded residence of a religious community and its guru.
- A teacher and guide in spiritual and philosophical matters.
- Devoted to or marked by pleasure and luxury.
- Of or relating to Sybaris or its people.
- Of or having the qualities of a sybarite; self-indulgent or decadent.
- Having the character of or dedicated to excessive luxury.
- Severe or stern in disposition or appearance; somber and grave: the austere figure of a Puritan minister.
- Strict or severe in discipline; ascetic: a desert nomad's austere life. See Synonyms at severe.
- Having no adornment or ornamentation; bare: an austere style.
- A person who is devoted to sensual pleasures or sensuous living.
- A person with highly refined tastes in food, wine, music etcetera.
- A contented state of being happy and healthy and prosperous.
- A particular manner of speaking; idiom: legal parlance.
- Speech, especially a conversation or parley.
- A discussion or conference, especially one between enemies over terms of truce or other matters.
- To have a discussion, especially with an enemy.
- Belonging to the same period of time: a fact documented by two contemporary sources.
- Of about the same age.
- Current; modern: contemporary trends in design.
- One of the same time or age: Shelley and Keats were contemporaries.
- A person of the present age.
- A pleasure that comes when the mind is at rest.
- Perfect peace of mind, or calmness.
- Freedom from the passions; calmness of mind; stoical indifference: a term used by the Stoics and Skeptics.
- Assistance in time of distress; relief.
- One that affords assistance or relief.
- To give assistance to in time of want, difficulty, or distress.
- The principles and practices of an ascetic; extreme self-denial and austerity.
- The doctrine that the ascetic life releases the soul from bondage to the body and permits union with the divine.
- Represented accurately or precisely.
- Described in words with sharpness and detail or with vivid imagery.
- Containing or based on a fallacy: a fallacious assumption.
- Tending to mislead; deceptive: fallacious testimony.
- To distribute by or as if by measure; allot: mete out justice.
- Archaic To measure.
- A boundary line; a limit.
- Lack of the basic necessities or comforts of life.
- The condition resulting from such lack.
- An act, condition, or result of deprivation or loss.
- To gather and store in or as if in a granary.
- To amass; acquire. See Synonyms at reap.
- A granary.
- An accumulation or collection of something.
- Having acquired worldly knowledge or refinement; lacking natural simplicity or naiveté.
- Very complex or complicated: the latest and most sophisticated technology.
- Suitable for or appealing to the tastes of sophisticates: a sophisticated drama.
- In a facetious or flippant manner; in a manner that treats serious issues with deliberately inappropriate humour.
- In a pleasantly humorous or playful fashion.
- Not seriously.
- A pewterer, who produced small pewter utensils, like saltcellars.
- One who trifles; especially, a shallow, light-minded, or flippant person; an idler.
- One who behaves lightly or not seriously.
- One whose occupation is to make utensils of pewter; a pewtersmith.
- One who idles; one who spends his time in inaction.
- One who idles; a lazy person; a sluggard.
- A state of calm, unruffled self-assurance; aplomb, composure.
- Self-confident assurance; poise. See Synonyms at confidence.
- The din and commotion of a great crowd.
- A disorderly commotion or disturbance.
- A tempestuous uprising; a riot.
- Agitation of the mind or emotions.
- Of, relating to, or resembling a tempest: tempestuous gales.
- Tumultuous; stormy: a tempestuous relationship.
- A violent windstorm, frequently accompanied by rain, snow, or hail.
- Furious agitation, commotion, or tumult; an uproar.
- To cause a tempest around or in.
- Of or relating to a condition that is present at birth, as a result of either heredity or environmental influences: a congenital heart defect; congenital syphilis.
- Being or having an essential characteristic as if by nature; inherent or inveterate.
- Firmly and long established; deep-rooted: inveterate preferences.
- Persisting in an ingrained habit; habitual: an inveterate liar. See Synonyms at chronic.
- A standard, rule, or test on which a judgement or decision can be based.
- Of a size or splendour suggesting great expense; lavish.
- Extreme want or poverty; destitution.
- Extreme dearth; barrenness or insufficiency.
- An empty space or a missing part; a gap.
- Having at most one instruction associated with any given internal state.
- Having exactly predictable time evolution.
- Having each state depend only on the immediately previous state, as opposed to having some states depend on backtracking where there may be multiple possible next actions and no way to choose between them except by trying each one and backtracking upon failure.
- Causally determined and not subject to random chance.
- To ask for humbly or earnestly, as by praying.
- To make a humble entreaty to; beseech.
- To make a humble, earnest petition; beg.
- Not capable of being persuaded by entreaty; relentless: an inexorable opponent; a feeling of inexorable doom.
- A person who habitually indulges in debauchery or dissipation; a libertine.
- The object of perception.
- A mental impression of something perceived by the senses, viewed as the basic component in the formation of concepts; a sense datum.
- A formal statement of religious belief; a confession of faith.
- A system of belief, principles, or opinions: laws banning discrimination on the basis of race or creed; an architectural creed that demanded simple lines.
- The mental faculty through which whims, visions, and fantasies are summoned up; imagination, especially of a whimsical or fantastic nature. See Synonyms at imagination.
- An image or a fantastic invention created by the mind.
- A capricious notion; a whim.
- A capricious liking or inclination.
- Amorous or romantic attachment; love.
- The enthusiasts or fans of a sport or pursuit considered as a group.
- The sport or pursuit, such as boxing, engaging the interest of such a group.
- Highly decorated: a fancy hat.
- Arising in the fancy; capricious.
- Executed with skill; complex or intricate: the fancy footwork of a figure skater.
- Of superior grade; fine: fancy preserves.
- Excessive or exorbitant: paid a fancy price for the car.
- Bred for unusual qualities or special points.
- To visualise; imagine.
- To take a fancy to; like.
- To suppose; guess.
- Characterised by or subject to whim; impulsive and unpredictable. See Synonyms at arbitrary.
- Strongly attracted or disposed to love, especially sexual love.
- Indicative of love or sexual desire: an amorous glance.
- Of or associated with love: an amorous poem.
- Being in love; enamored: He had been amorous of her since the day they met.
- Totally in love.
- Exceeding all bounds, as of custom or fairness: exorbitant prices. See Synonyms at excessive.
- Intemperate in the pursuit of pleasure; dissolute.
- Wasted or squandered.
- Irreversibly lost. Used of energy.
- A sudden or capricious idea; a fancy.
- Arbitrary thought or impulse: governed by whim.
- A vertical horse-powered drum used as a hoist in a mine.
- Not temperate or moderate; excessive, especially in the use of alcoholic beverages.
- Of, relating to, or in the interests of utility: utilitarian considerations in industrial design.
- Exhibiting or stressing utility over other values; practical: plain, utilitarian kitchenware.
- Of, characterized by, or advocating utilitarianism.
- One who advocates or practices utilitarianism.
- The belief that the value of a thing or an action is determined by its utility.
- The ethical theory proposed by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
- The quality of being utilitarian: housing of bleak utilitarianism.
- A binding agreement; a compact. See Synonyms at bargain.
- Law A formal sealed agreement or contract.
- Law A suit to recover damages for violation of such a contract.
- In the Bible, God's promise to the human race.
- To promise by or as if by a covenant.
- To enter into a covenant.
- To evade or escape from, as by daring, cleverness, or skill: The suspect continues to elude the police.
- To escape the understanding or grasp of: a name that has always eluded me; a metaphor that eluded them. See Synonyms at escape.
- To remove from association; separate.
- To cease associating; part.
- To make unrelated; to sever a connection; to separate.
- Appropriate to a purpose.
- Serving to promote one's interest: was merciful only when mercy was expedient.
- Based on or marked by a concern for self-interest rather than principle; self-interested.
- Obsolete Speedy; expeditious.
- Something that is a means to an end.
- Something contrived or used to meet an urgent need. See Synonyms at makeshift.
- Acting or done with speed and efficiency. See Synonyms at fast.
- To cry over; lament: bewail the dead.
- To express sorrow or unhappiness over.
- A minor weakness or failing of character.
- The weaker section of a sword blade, from the middle to the tip.
- Arousing or meriting strong dislike, aversion, or intense displeasure. See Synonyms at hateful.
- Characterized by stealth; surreptitious.
- Expressive of hidden motives or purposes; shifty. See Synonyms at secret.
- Composed of or divided into three parts.
- Relating to or executed by three parties: a tripartite agreement.
- Realization of something desired or worked for; accomplishment: labor finally coming to fruition.
- Enjoyment derived from use or possession.
- The condition of bearing fruit.
- To be beyond the limit, powers, or capacity of; transcend: misery that surpasses comprehension.
- To be or go beyond, as in degree or quality; exceed. See Synonyms at excel.
- The act of disparaging, of belittling.
- To speak of in a slighting or disrespectful way; belittle. See Synonyms at decry.
- To reduce in esteem or rank.
- Alcoholic beverage taken before a meal as an appetiser.
- The act of accoutering.
- An article of clothing or equipment, in particular when used as an accessory.
- Apparatus needed for a task or journey.
- Equipment other than weapons and uniform.
- An identifying yet superficial characteristic.
- Architecture A series of columns placed at regular intervals.
- Architecture A structure composed of columns placed at regular intervals.
- An ancient Greek covered walk or colonnade, usually having columns on one side and a wall on the other.
- Of the highest order, quality, or degree; surpassing or superior to all others.
- Excessive or exaggerated.
- Grammar Of, relating to, or being the extreme degree of comparison of an adjective or adverb, as in best or brightest.
- Something of the highest possible excellence.
- The highest degree; the acme.
- The highest point, as of achievement or development: reached the acme of her career. See Synonyms at summit.
- To draw, engrave, or paint in dots or short strokes.
- To apply (paint, for example) in dots or short strokes.
- To dot, fleck, or speckle.
- A method of drawing, engraving, or painting using dots or short strokes.
- The effect produced by stippling.
- To throw from or as if from a great height; hurl downward.
- To cause to happen, especially suddenly or prematurely. See Synonyms at speed.
- Meteorology To cause (water vapor) to condense and fall from the air as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
- Chemistry To cause (a solid substance) to be separated from a solution.
- Meteorology To condense and fall from the air as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
- Chemistry To be separated from a solution as a solid.
- To fall or be thrown headlong: an ailing economy that precipitated into ruin despite foreign intervention.
- Moving rapidly and heedlessly; speeding headlong.
- Acting with or marked by excessive haste and lack of due deliberation. See Synonyms at impetuous, reckless.
- Occurring suddenly or unexpectedly.
- Chemistry A solid or solid phase separated from a solution.
- A product resulting from a process, event, or course of action.
- Characterized by sudden and forceful energy or emotion; impulsive and passionate.
- Having or marked by violent force: impetuous, heaving waves.
- To disturb greatly; make uneasy or anxious.
- To throw into great confusion.
- Physics & Astronomy To cause perturbation, as of a celestial orbit.
- The state of being a martyr.
- The suffering of death by a martyr.
- Extreme suffering of any kind.
- To cause to be uneasy; vex.
- To gnaw or wear away; erode.
- To produce a hole or worn spot in; corrode. See Synonyms at chafe.
- To form (a passage or channel) by erosion.
- To disturb the surface of (water or a stream); agitate.
- To be vexed or troubled; worry. See Synonyms at brood.
- To be worn or eaten away; become corroded.
- To move agitatedly.
- To gnaw with the teeth in the manner of a rodent.
- The act or an instance of fretting.
- A hole or worn spot made by abrasion or erosion.
- Irritation of mind; agitation.
- One of several ridges set across the fingerboard of a stringed instrument, such as a guitar.
- To provide with frets.
- To press (the strings of an instrument) against the frets.
- An ornamental design consisting of repeated and symmetrical geometric figures, often in relief, contained within a band or border. Also called key pattern.
- A headdress, worn by women of the Middle Ages, consisting of interlaced wire.
- To provide with such a design or headdress.
- To annoy, as with petty importunities; bother. See Synonyms at annoy.
- To cause perplexity in; puzzle.
- To bring distress or suffering to; plague or afflict.
- To debate or discuss (a question, for example) at length.
- To toss about or shake up.
- An importunate request; an insistent or pressing demand.
- The quality of being importunate.
- Troublesomely urgent or persistent in requesting; pressingly entreating: an importunate job seeker.
- Of or advocating the doctrines of Aristippus of Cyrene, who argued that pleasure is the only good in life.
- Existing in or belonging to one by nature; innate: native ability.
- Being such by birth or origin: a native Scot.
- Being one's own because of the place or circumstances of one's birth: our native land.
- Originating, growing, or produced in a certain place or region; indigenous: a plant native to Asia.
- Being a member of the original inhabitants of a particular place.
- Of, belonging to, or characteristic of such inhabitants: native dress; the native diet of Polynesia.
- Occurring in nature pure or uncombined with other substances: native copper.
- Natural; unaffected: native beauty.
- Archaic Closely related, as by birth or race.
- Biochemistry Of or relating to the naturally occurring conformation of a macromolecule, such as a protein.
- One born in or connected with a place by birth: a native of Scotland now living in the United States.
- One of the original inhabitants or lifelong residents of a place.
- An animal or plant that originated in a particular place or region.